(2005). World Development, 33(1), 21–41. It is estimated that health spending has a significant impact on health status, specifically, development health spending and income are robust predictors of health status for the population in Pakistan and is seen to affect female life expectancy positively in both the short and in long run, however, it is important to note that the impact of income per capita is relatively stronger than that of public health spending. Does the level of infant mortality affect the rate of decline? The relationship between fertility and infant mortality rates within the cointegration and granger causality framework: Evidence from China. Fayissa, B., & Gutema, P. (2005). Chichester: Wiley. Article  These demographic projections raise a number of issues for the country. Other estimates, based on a modified definition of urban settlements, suggest that the ratio of urban to rural population could be 40.5 percent and even higher. : Time series data from 21 countries, What determines public health expenditures in Pakistan? Health Economics Review, 2012(2), 22. World Development Report. ", Pierre‐Yves Crémieux & Pierre Ouellette & Caroline Pilon, 1999. GOP. In 1952 the Family Planning Association of Pakistan, an NGO, in… () (Independant Researcher and Consultant based in Islamabad Cornell University), () (University of Kansas Planning Commission of Pakistan, Pak Secretariat). 46. Health: Perception versus observation. (2008) also investigated long-term positive impacts of health indicators (life expectancy, infant mortality rate, health expenditure and population per bed) on economic growth. Pakistan’s population is expected to surpass that of Indonesia in 2048 when it will reach 331.29 million. Palloni, A., & Rafalimanan, H. (1999). One of the poorest countries in the world, Pakistan has 1 of the highest population growth rates in the world at about 3.0% annually. While population growth, of any species, may be beneficial to a certain extent, there may come a time when the number in the population exceeds the natural resources available to sustain it. You can help correct errors and omissions. Public profiles for Economics researchers, Various rankings of research in Economics & related fields, Curated articles & papers on various economics topics, Upload your paper to be listed on RePEc and IDEAS, RePEc working paper series dedicated to the job market, Pretend you are at the helm of an economics department, Data, research, apps & more from the St. Louis Fed, Initiative for open bibliographies in Economics, Have your institution's/publisher's output listed on RePEc. Brown, J., & Pollitt, E. (1996). The United Nations Population Division estimates that, by 2025, nearly half the country's population will be living in cities. Economic survey of Pakistan 2010–2011. Pritchett, L., & Summers, L. H. (1996). Bidirectional causality exists between infant and child mortality and fertility rate; these results are supported by the modern economic theory of population. This is referred to as overpopulation. Bulletin of World Health Organization, 82(12), 947–949. Shahbaz, M., et al. Health Economics, 4, 157–167. Learn more about Institutional subscriptions. Schultz, T. W. (1993). World Bank Economic Review, 10(1), 123–158. (Eds.). Pakistan's extremely high rate of population growth is caused by a falling death rate combined with a continuing high birth rate. Feeney, G., & Alam, I. The infant mortality-fertility debate: Some international evidence. 86–28. Pakistan’s economic freedom score is 54.8, making its economy the 135th freest in the 2020 Index. Demography, 36, 337–342. 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